A person’s memory may decline due to age, a high-stress lifestyle, and other common factors. In this post, we’ll be covering 21 different supplements and nootropics that have been reported to help improve memory, and will break down what the science says about the potential effects and mechanisms behind each one. Read on to start learning more!
Disclaimer: This post is not a recommendation or endorsement for the use of any of the particular compounds or drugs discussed in this post. The FDA has not approved any of these compounds for “cognitive-enhancement” purposes, and the available research on them is still in a very early stage overall. We have written this post for informational purposes only, and our goal is solely to inform people about what science currently says about these substances’ potential uses and mechanisms.
Compounds that fall into this category are considered to be “possibly effective”. This means that while it’s not 100% certain that they are effective, a fair number of early studies have been done on them, and their findings tend to lean in the direction of suggesting some potential efficacy.
Nonetheless, it should be kept in mind that these supplements still have not been officially FDA-approved for any specific purpose, and much more research will still be needed to fully confirm their potential efficacy and overall safety in healthy human users.
In addition to these potential brain-protecting effects, some preliminary research also reports that huperzine A may have some effects on specific cognitive functions, such as learning and memory.
For example, one early human study reported that huperzine A appeared to enhance the memory and learning of junior middle school students who were complaining of memory problems .
Huperzine A has also been reported to be relatively well-tolerated, and showed promising treatment potential (possibly significant memory improvement) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, according to one early study .
Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease patients experience degeneration in the nucleus basalis, a region of the brain that is extremely rich in acetylcholine cells. According to one study in an animal model, Huperzine A was reported to help restore healthy brain electrical activity (EEG). In animals suffering from lesions in this brain region, Huperzine A was also reported to reduce impairments in cognitive and memory functions caused by brain lesions .
How Huperzine A May Improve Memory:
- Possibly increasing acetylcholine (specifically, by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for breaking down and removing this neurotransmitter from the brain) .
- Potentially increasing the levels of important growth factors such as NGF, BDNF, and TGF-Beta. These compounds are also believed to help protect the brain, and may even possibly improve memory and learning ability .
Although huperzine A’s full mechanisms of action are not completely known, early results from one animal study in mice with reduced blood flow to the brain (chronic cerebral hypoperfusion) suggest that Huperzine A treatment may also alleviate cognitive impairment by :
- reducing myelin damage
- decreasing inflammation (via TNF-alpha)
- alleviating white matter lesions
- reducing overall cell damage / cell death
- preventing or reducing the negative effects of low oxygen (hypoxia)
Compounds that fall into this category are considered to be “possibly ineffective”. This means that while a fair amount of early research has been done on them, the findings from these preliminary studies generally report mixed, inconclusive, or even negative results, which cast some doubt on their true potential.
Note that this doesn’t necessarily mean that they are not effective – it only means that the data available on them so far leans towards suggesting that they might not be effective as initially believed.
As always, more research will be needed to find out for certain whether or not they are potentially effective and safe.
Citicoline has been reported to:
- Improve memory and learning, including situations of impoverished environments (animal studies) [6, 7]
- Improve cognitive control (a frontal lobe function) in humans 
- Reduce memory impairments associated with brain diseases in humans (including chronic cerebrovascular disease, dementia, cerebral insufficiency, memory problems, dementia, and ischemic stroke) [9, 10, 11]
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of citicoline include:
- Enhances membrane phosphatide synthesis 
- Decrease pre-programmed cell death of neurons (apoptosis) 
- Increases levels of the anti-oxidant compound glutathione, while decreasing levels of oxidized glutathione 
Much of the research on the compounds listed below is still in a very early stage, and in most cases, it is not yet possible to come to any firm conclusions about their relative efficacy and safety in human users.
Therefore, the potential effects listed below are still considered to have insufficient evidence, and these findings should be taken with a grain of salt until further research work – including large-scale clinical trials in healthy human users – is performed.
Panax ginseng is a traditional Chinese herb that has been claimed by some to improve long-term memory. But does the science back this up?
At least one early human study has reported that the ginkgo/ginseng combination to improve memory in healthy adults .
Although scientists don’t know for sure how panax ginseng works yet, some preliminary findings suggest that it may improve memory by:
- Reducing oxidative stress by promoting the release of Nitric Oxide (NO), which protects the brain 
- Increasing serotonin 
- Increasing the levels of various important neurotransmitters (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) involved in learning (rat study) 
In addition to these general mechanisms, some of the other potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects Ginkgo Biloba include:
- Increasing acetylcholine, which may theoretically help with learning, attention, and memory [15, 16]
- Increasing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in the rat hippocampus 
- Protecting the mitochondrial membrane and preventing cytochrome c release, preventing neurons from pre-programmed cell death (a process called apoptosis) 
- Protecting against amyloid-beta-induced toxicity, which is believed to be one of the most important factors in the development of Alzheimer’s disease 
According to a handful of early research studies in both animals and humans, supplements containing compounds derived from the bacopa monnieri plant has been reported to improve:
- Attention, cognitive processing, and working memory (by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, or AChE) 
- Overall memory and general cognitive function (based on auditory and Stroop tasks) 
- Free memory recall 
- Delayed word call 
- Memory acquisition and retention (in older men only) 
- Memory formation and retention 
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of Bacopa include:
- Increasing acetylcholine levels (by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and/or choline acetyltransferase) and glutamate levels, each of which is a neurotransmitter that is believed to play a key role in learning and memory [24, 16]
- Increasing enzymes and transporters that act to increase serotonin (TPH2, SERT) levels, which may play a role in overall learning and memory 
- Protecting the brain from oxidative stress by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, GPx, and GSR) as well as glutathione (one of the brain’s most potent natural anti-oxidant compounds) 
- Increasing brain blood flow by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production and inhibiting calcium fluctuations. These mechanisms are believed by some to be vital to memory and overall brain health 
According to some early studies in animals and humans, some of semax’s reported effects include:
- Protecting against low oxygen (hypoxia) by promoting the survival of neurons when the brain is not receiving enough oxygen (in rats) 
- Enhancing attention and memory storage 
- Influencing the formation of newly-learned information and memories 
- Increasing selective attention at the moment of receiving information, as well as strengthening and promoting overall learning abilities 
- Improving memory and attention in healthy men under extreme conditions 
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of Semax include:
- Increasing enkephalins (a natural opiate neurotransmitter), which may be involved in memory formation, consolidation, and reactivation/recall [29, 30]
- Enhancing calcium ion accumulation inside the cells, which may help fight against brain-degenerative processes 
- Enhancing the production of key proteins (such as immunoglobulin) that are believed to play a role in protecting the brain from stress and damage 
For example, sodium butyrate was reported to increase memory function in patients with age-related brain diseases, according to one early clinical trial .
Similarly, another study reports that sodium butyrate may help prevent memory impairments in rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis .
According to one animal study, sodium butyrate has been reported to boost long-term memory by increasing synaptic activity in the hippocampus (a region of the brain that is believed to be critical for forming and storing new memories during learning) . However, follow-up studies on butyrate’s potential mechanisms in healthy human users will be needed to further confirm this early finding.
Some of the other potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of butyrate include:
Creatine‘s main role is recycling cellular energy (in the form of ATP), primarily in the brain and muscles.
Creatine is currently in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of Huntington’s disease .
Creatine, both with- or without exercise (synergistic effect when combined), may protect the brain. For example, one study reports that it may help to delay the progression of some major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s .
In elderly patients, creatine supplementation reportedly improved cognition and memory in all but one test, providing additional suggestive evidence that creatine may potentially aid cognitive function in the elderly .
Creatine is stored as phosphocreatine, which acts as a high-energy reserve. Phosphocreatine decreases rapidly during brain activity. Supplementing with creatine (2 grams per day for 1 month) was reported to increase average brain creatine levels by 9.7%. This finding suggests that creatine may act as an energy source for the brain to use during demanding cognitive tasks, such as learning, as well as potentially provide an energy source for the storage of newly-formed memories into long-term memory .
- Protecting against beta-amyloid toxicity in the hippocampus
- Protecting neurons by maintaining mitochondrial energy production and protecting the mitochondria (by raising mitochondrial membrane potentials, reducing intra-mitochondrial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reducing calcium levels inside the mitochondria)
Glucose is the brain’s most important primary source of energy. While glucose has many positive cognitive effects, one review suggests that memory, in particular, may be especially dependent on glucose for energy .
A handful of other studies in both animals and humans have reported that glucose may potentially:
- Improve memory and attention in college students 
- Improve cognitive functions in subjects with different neurodegenerative diseases [43, 44]
- Enhance learning and memory (in healthy young animals and humans) 
- Improve verbal memory associated with certain health conditions (such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases) 
Impaired blood sugar regulation has been linked to cognitive impairments, especially visual memory. These potential impairments are reported to be relatively worse in older individuals, suggesting that age may be an important factor .
Because the brain’s glucose levels are drained by cognitively-demanding tasks, some of these reported cognitive effects may simply be due to restoring the brain’s energy supply by “re-supplying” it with glucose .
Alternatively, glucose-sensitive neurons in the brain may serve as sensors of glucose levels. Therefore, glucose may stimulate these neurons, which may then respond to these signals by stimulating processes related to learning and memory .
Some of the other potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of glucose include:
- Improving memory consolidation and memory coding when task demand is high (this is probably just a downstream effect of increased cellular energy levels) 
- Increasing insulin levels, which is linked to memory enhancement 
- Increasing acetylcholine, which is a critical neurotransmitter for memory and learning processes 
- Preventing neuronal cell death (apoptosis) 
Curcumin, also commonly known as the spice turmeric, has been linked to a number of potential beneficial effects on the brain, as well as on certain health conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease.
- In older people, long-term supplementation with curcumin has been reported to significantly improve working memory 
- May protect against stress-induced impairment of brain development (in rats) 
- May prevent learning and memory deficits (in rats treated with sodium metabisulfite) 
In addition to some of the early evidence suggesting possible effects of curcumin on cognitive processes, curcumin has also shown some early promise as a potential preventive supplement for Alzheimer’s disease .
However, these effects have only been reported by animal studies so far, so these will need to be confirmed by corresponding studies in human patients.
Some of these early animal findings include:
- Curcumin was reported to reduce spatial memory impairments in rats caused by the build-up of amyloid beta (a neurotoxic byproduct that is believed to be the main factor behind the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease) .
- Curcumin reportedly protected against neuronal cell death (apoptosis) in rats, which may be linked to some reduced impairments in learning and memory .
Although the mechanisms behind these potential effects of curcumin have not been conclusively determined yet, some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested include:
- increasing key growth factors such as BDNF, CREB, and synapsin-1
- Alleviating inflammation (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines)
- reducing oxidative stress
- increasing synaptic plasticity
- protecting against chronic stress
- protecting against glutamate over-excitation (excitotoxicity)
- restoring glutathione levels and stimulating insulin receptors
Although it is highly addictive and dangerous in most of its common forms, nicotine is one of the most well-documented drugs to have memory-related effects.
However, we are not recommending starting smoking by any means! Since smoking is a major worldwide cause of death, the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Therefore, we highly advise against smoking or using tobacco – and if you are already a smoker, seek professional help as soon as possible. Stopping smoking is among the most important things you can do to improve your health and longevity .
While nicotine can also be ingested in other forms – such as “e-cigarettes” or “vapes” – the safety of these methods have not been fully proven, and many serious concerns remain about their short-term and long-term effects and safety .
Some of the clinical studies on nicotine have relied on other forms, such as nicotine patches or gum. Although these might be “safer”, there is still a high potential for addiction and dependence to nicotine in any form. Therefore, considering how many different – and relatively much safer – options there are, it’s probably best to avoid nicotine altogether, and focus instead on less potentially dangerous options (such as the other ones in this post) .
With all that in mind, some of the purported cognitive effects of nicotine include:
- Makes it easier to consolidate memories in perceptual learning 
- Improves learning tasks (including contextual conditioning) 
- May protect the brain 
- Improves attention 
- Improves dexterity / fine motor coordination 
- Reduces cognitive impairment 
- Improves short-term memory 
According to one clinical study, nicotine patches reportedly helped alleviate cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and ADD/ADHD patients .
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of nicotine include:
- Increases acetylcholine activity [65, 66]
- Activates the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, which has been implicated in learning 
- Activates the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, which has been implicated in long-term memory 
All in all, while some of the existing research on the potential cognitive effects of nicotine might seem promising, the inherent risk of addiction, dependence, and other significant dangers highly suggest against trying to use nicotine for the purposes of “cognitive enhancement”.
Because these MAO (monoamine oxidase) enzymes are involved in the breakdown of several major types of neurotransmitter in the brain (monoamines), inhibiting them can lead to increased levels of several different important neurotransmitters throughout the brain:
- MAO-A: dopamine, serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and tyramine
- MAO-B: phenylethylamine, dopamine, and other amines
These altered neurotransmitter levels, in turn, could theoretically have a number of effects on the brain and certain cognitive processes.
For example, some early studies in both animals and humans have reported that selegiline may:
- Help memory impairments associated with Alzheimer’s 
- Improve memory and overall cognitive functioning in Parkinson’s patients (vs. placebo) 
- Improve memory impairments via the cholinergic system, a major brain system that has been associated with dementia 
- Improve long-term memory (in aged mice; 0.25 mg/kg, 3 times per week) 
- Protect against memory impairments from iron (in mice) 
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of selegiline include:
- Enhancing the activity of the “P300” signal (a brain response associated with vigilance, attention, and decision-making) [68, 72, 73]
- Increasing dopamine (through inhibiting MAO-B) [74, 75]
- Acting as an antioxidant, and protecting against glutamate toxicity (excitotoxicity) in neurons 
- Inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) – the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine – thereby potentially increasing acetylcholine levels throughout the brain [76, 77]
Modafinil is a medical drug that is FDA-approved for treating certain health conditions, such as narcolepsy and other fatigue-related disorders.
As such, it can only be obtained legally via a doctor’s prescription, and should only be used under the ongoing supervision of a qualified medical professional.
While this drug is not approved for any applications related to cognition (or cognitive enhancement), some findings from early clinical studies in human patients suggest that this prescription medication may nonetheless have some secondary effects on brain function and cognitive processing.
According to another study, adult ADHD patients who were administered modafinil (200 mg/day) were reported to show significant improvements in short-term memory, visual memory, and spatial planning. However, although they responded more accurately on tests, they had slower responses overall – which may suggest that there are some important trade-offs involved in some of modafinil’s potential cognitive effects .
Similarly, modafinil has been reported to improve working memory in individuals with cognitive impairments related to chronic methamphetamine abuse .
While some of these early results seem somewhat promising, it is important to note that all of these studies involved human patients with very specific medical conditions or disorders, and so there is no direct evidence as yet that this drug would have similar effects in healthy human users.
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of modafinil include:
- Increases glutamate in the thalamus 
- Prevents glutamate toxicity (excitotoxicity), which damages and kills neurons 
- Increases dopamine, norepinephrine (inhibits dopamine/norepinephrine transporter) and serotonin 
- Increases histamine neurons in multiple parts of the brain 
However, while it is possible to find and order this drug online, it is not advised to experiment with it casually, as it may not be legal to possess where you live. It also has some serious potential side-effects and other risks, which is why it is typically only available by a doctor’s prescription. Taking all of this into account, if you are interested in using supplements to potentially enhance your cognitive abilities, you are better off sticking to many of the safer and legal options discussed elsewhere in this post!
For the supplements and compounds listed below, what we currently know about their potential effects is based solely on animal- or cell-based studies, and are lacking evidence from any appropriate human trials so far. Therefore, these are only potential “launching-points” for future clinical studies in humans, and no solid conclusions can be made about these effects in human users until much more additional research is done.
Alpha-GPC is a natural cholinergic compound found in the brain.
Alpha-GPC has also been investigated for its potential in treating Alzheimer’s disease and multiple forms of dementia.
However, the evidence so far comes only from animal studies (primarily in rats and mice) – and so studies in humans will be needed to see if these preliminary results also hold up in actual human patients.
According to one study in mice, alpha-GPC was reported to improve a wide number of memory functions (including working memory, verbal memory learning, and pathway learning in a maze task) .
Similarly, another animal study reported that alpha-GPC may improve learning and memory in rats with experimentally-induced amnesia .
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of alpha-GPC include:
Selank is another compound that was originally developed in Russia, and which has been reported to be a nootropic and anxiety-reducing peptide. It is a synthetic analog of a component of immunoglobulin G (tuftsin).
However, the evidence in support of its effects, while somewhat promising, has only been shown in animals so far.
For example, according to some early findings, selank reportedly improved memory and brain function in rats with lowered learning abilities. The studied rats were also reported to have enhanced memory abilities under conditions of high emotional stress .
In another study in rats, injecting 300 μg/kg of selank was reported to increase the stability of memory traces (newly-formed memories) for up to one month .
Finally, selank (300 μg/kg) was reported to help restore certain cognitive functions (such as memory, learning, and attention to sensory stimuli) in rats with chronic artificial inhibition of the brain (specifically, the cerebral catecholaminergic system) .
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of Selank include:
- Activates the dopamine D5 receptor (DRD5), which plays a key role in the formation of memory and learning processes .
- Increases BDNF in the hippocampus of rats .
- Increases enkephalins, which play a role in memory formation, consolidation, and reactivation/recall [29, 30].
However, all of these preliminary findings will have to be followed up on by large-scale human studies in order to fully confirm these potential effects.
Similar to some of the supplements discussed in the preceding sections, the following “nootropic” (“cognitive-enhancing”) drugs and compounds are still in a very early stage of research, and are considered to have “insufficient evidence” to come to any firm conclusions about their efficacy in healthy human users.
Note that this doesn’t mean that they’re not effective – just that there isn’t enough hard data on them (such as from large-scale clinical trials in humans) to say for sure.
Nonetheless, this means that you should take the scientific claims discussed below with a healthy grain of salt until appropriate large-scale follow-up studies in humans are performed.
Piracetam is the oldest member of the “racetam” family of nootropic drugs. It is also one of the most “popular” nootropic compounds, and as such there have been many claims made about its potential effects. But what does the current science really say?
So far, the available data and hard evidence from legitimate clinical studies of this drug are a bit modest – at least compared to a lot of the hype that you can find about piracetam online. This isn’t to say that there isn’t any evidence, though; just that the full picture is still complex, with many mixed and inconclusive results so far.
We’ll briefly discuss some of the more promising findings behind it below: but if you want to get a more complete picture of the current science behind this drug – as well as some of its potential side-effects and other risks – we would encourage you to check out our other, more detailed SelfDecode posts on it here and here.
According to one early human study, piracetam was reported to improve long-term/short-term memory retrieval in 60 dyslexic boys .
Piracetam was also associated with a significant improvement in verbal and nonverbal short-term memory and attention in patients undergoing bypass surgery . However, this was a small study, and only dealt with patients with a specific underlying medical condition – so we can’t assume that similar effects would necessarily apply to healthy human users without appropriate follow-up studies to confirm this.
Additionally, a couple of early animal studies have reported that chronic treatment (250 mg/kg) with piracetam significantly improved working memory in mice with drug-induced amnesia. However, in one of these studies, piracetam was combined with citicoline, so it’s not possible to determine which specific compound was responsible for these effects [92, 93].
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of piracetam include:
- Increasing the function of muscarinic choline receptors 
- Stimulating NMDA receptors 
- Improving cell membrane permeability 
- Enhancing the brain’s ability to use glucose
Phenylpiracetam is a Russian drug developed in 1983 to combat the prolonged stress of working in space. Today it is a prescription medication typically sold under the name “Phenotropil” in Russia.
It is not approved elsewhere (such as by the FDA in the USA) for any specific use.
According to one preliminary study, phenotropil was reported to improve daily functioning and brain function in stroke patients .
In another study on patients with brain damage (encephalopathy), phenotropil was reported to improve brain functions, memory, and counting ability .
In animals that lack blood flow to the brain, phenotropil was reported to improve their memory functions and vitality .
However, it is important to notice that all of the above studies were done in subjects with various underlying forms of brain damage, and so it cannot be concluded that phenotropil would have similar effects in healthy users on the basis of any of these findings.
The mechanisms of phenylpiracetam/phenotropil are not clinically clear but should – in theory – be similar to other drugs in the racetam family.
Oxiracetam is another racetam drug with some early results showing potential effects on cognitive function.
For example, in a study of patients with Alzheimer’s or multi-infarct dementia, 800 mg oxiracetam twice daily was reported to improve memory, with no signs of tolerance developed. However, performances on some cognitive tests were statistically worse than baseline after late-stage follow-up, indicating very mixed results .
One study in humans reported that oxiracetam’s effects on memory may be greater compared to piracetam .
In a study on rats and mice, oxiracetam was reported to improved memory as well as piracetam. In addition, it also reported improved these animals’ learning abilities .
According to one rat study, oxiracetam reportedly reduced brain injury, and increased learning, memory, and spatial cognition in rats with traumatic brain injuries .
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of oxiracetam include:
- Prevents decreases in the brain’s levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is believed to be critical in overall memory function .
Pramiracetam is marketed as a potential treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative diseases and vascular dementia. However, its evidence for efficacy in healthy human subjects remains somewhat limited.
In one study of males with brain injuries, pramiracetam (400 mg) was reported to improve memory (with no build-up of tolerance) over an 18-month period. The effect was reported to be consistent up to 1 month after discontinuing treatment .
Pramiracetam has also been reported to partially counteract experimentally-induced amnesia (caused by scopolamine) in one study of both young and old (18-42 and 55-65-year-old) human participants .
According to one other human study, pramiracetam was reported to have a statistically significant effect on improving the memory of patients suffering from lack of oxygen in the brain (chronic cerebral blood insufficiency) .
However, all of these human studies were done on people with brain injuries or experimentally-induced cognitive deficits, and so cannot be translated over into healthy human users without much additional research.
In one animal study on rats, pramiracetam (7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) was reported to improve long-term memory, but did not significantly improve working memory .
Some of the potential mechanisms that have been suggested to be behind the effects of pramiracetam include:
- Increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity .
- Increases choline uptake (in rat hippocampus) .
PRL-8-53 is an experimental nootropic research drug. As such it is extremely new, and very little is known about what its potential effects or mechanisms might be.
In one double-blind study, PRL-8-53 was reported to enhance learning and memory retention in humans (at very low doses) .
The Mechanisms of PRL-8-53 have not been studied yet, and currently, remain unclear.
Fasoracetam – also sometimes referred to as “NS-105” – is another member of the racetam family of drugs. It is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of vascular dementia and ADHD, although it is most likely still a long ways off from possibly becoming FDA-approved for any particular official use.
The mechanisms of fasoracetam are not clinically clear, but are theoretically similar to those of other drugs in the racetam family, due to the chemical and molecular similarities they appear to share.
Apart from one preliminary animal study (below), large-scale clinical studies on this drug are generally lacking, and so not much is known for sure about how effective or safe it may be in healthy human users – especially over the long term.
However, this is only one study, in rats, and so a lot more research will clearly be needed to understand more about this drug’s potential effects in humans. As such, it’s not recommended to experiment with this drug, since its efficacy and safety remain unknown.
>>> To learn more about fasoracetam, check out our detailed SelfDecode post on it here.
Coluracetam is yet another drug variant in the racetam family with a couple of animal studies on its potential effects. However, no human studies have been performed yet.
In one animal study in rats with brain damage from chemicals, coluracetam was reported to reduce the toxically-induced memory impairments, with no apparent adverse side-effects .
In one other animal study, coluracetam was also reported to induce long-lasting (72-hour) effects on cognitive function after repeated administration (rat study) .
Finally, you may not actually need to experiment with supplements and nootropic drugs in order to see noticeable improvements in memory!
There are many common lifestyle and dietary factors that can affect how efficiently the brain works – and, by extension, which can affect specific cognitive functions, such as memory.
The following strategies below have shown some evidence for boosting memory, and could be considered as complementary approaches to promoting overall brain health and potentially improving cognitive functioning:
- Reducing and managing overall stress 
- Antioxidants 
- Omega-3 Fatty Acids 
- Folate and other B-complex vitamins 
- Medium-Chain Triglycerides (Axona and Coconut Oil) 
- Regular exercise / physical activity 
- Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) 
- Proper nutrition 
- Mental exercise / cognitive stimulation 
- Tea intake (black/oolong tea) 
- Statin use has been associated with a decreased risk of dementia in elderly patients